How tumor cells use mitochondria to keep growing —

Hormone remedy is commonly used to deal with prostate most cancers that has unfold to different components of the physique, however many sufferers develop resistance to hormone remedy, inflicting their illness to change into extra aggressive and doubtlessly extra lethal.

“One of many massive challenges we now have within the discipline is that almost all of prostate most cancers therapies goal hormones — the androgen axis,” says College of Colorado Most cancers Heart mentored member Cecilia Caino, PhD. “However practically all sufferers develop resistance to these medicine after which get a extra aggressive illness that begins shifting to different components of the physique. It has been confined to the prostate, however now it’d transfer over to the bones or the liver, or the lungs. That is actually a giant downside, as a result of once you begin to compromise the very important organs, the affected person finally will die.”

In spring 2021, Caino obtained an Concept Award from the U.S. Division of Protection’s Peer Reviewed Most cancers Analysis Program to analyze the position of mitochondria — the small power factories in cells that assist to interrupt down meals into gas — in metastatic prostate most cancers.

In preliminary analysis just lately revealed within the journal Molecular Most cancers Analysis, Caino and her co-investigators found that tumor cells use mitochondria to manage their progress and detect stress that may destroy a tumor cell if it’s not managed. Along with the Division of Protection, the analysis is funded by the American Most cancers Society, the Boettcher Basis, and the Nationwide Institute of Normal Medical Sciences.

“We all know that tumor cells are very proof against stress usually; that is what makes them so exhausting to focus on with therapies,” Caino says. “However when the tumors develop too quick, they begin operating out of vitamins to maintain constructing. They make the most of this mitochondrial pathway that we describe to decelerate for a second, adapt, and increase their capability to synthesize extra blocks to construct the cells.”

A compound to focus on

Caino and her workforce additionally discovered {that a} mitochondrial protein referred to as MIRO2 is overexpressed in metastatic prostate most cancers tumors. Having beforehand discovered that MIRO2 works along with two different proteins referred to as GCN1 and GCN2 to assist metastatic prostate most cancers cells tolerate circumstances the place progress of regular cells could be prevented, Caino now hypothesizes that focusing on this protein compound can inhibit the mitochondrial course of that forestalls tumor cells from destroying themselves by increasing too shortly.

“Our subsequent step is to deal with animal fashions which have metastases and see if we are able to remove the tumor or forestall the metastasis from even occurring within the first place,” she says. “We’re additionally studying much more concerning the complicated, as a result of we wish to know the way it’s regulated. That may assist us stratify sufferers who will profit from the remedy from those that won’t.”

The researchers will begin out treating the metastasis with an current drug used to deal with acute lymphocytic leukemia, however Caino additionally hopes to finally design a drug that may forestall the complicated from forming within the first place.

“Quite a lot of instances medicine work for some time, then they cease working. You have already got to be excited about what you are going to do when that drug would not work anymore,” she says. “Hopefully we are able to provide you with a method to cease the method farther upstream.”

Milestone analysis

Caino is very enthusiastic about this analysis because it represents her first peer-reviewed paper as a senior corresponding creator. It additionally marks 22 years from her first expertise in lab analysis.

“I made a decision to begin a brand new line of analysis that didn’t stem straight from my postdoctoral research,” she says. “I additionally selected to start my lab with a few graduate college students and a technician, investing of their coaching whereas remaining concerned in bench work myself. Strolling this lengthy, winding street was difficult and referred to as upon each single talent and power I had.”

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Numerical detective work verifies liquidlike magnetic order in prior experiments —

Computational detective work by U.S. and German physicists has confirmed cerium zirconium pyrochlore is a 3D quantum spin liquid.

Regardless of the identify, quantum spin liquids are strong supplies during which quantum entanglement and the geometric association of atoms frustrate the pure tendency of electrons to magnetically order themselves in relation to 1 one other. The geometric frustration in a quantum spin liquid is so extreme that electrons fluctuate between quantum magnetic states irrespective of how chilly they turn out to be.

Theoretical physicists routinely work with quantum mechanical fashions that manifest quantum spin liquids, however discovering convincing proof that they exist in precise bodily supplies has been a decadeslong problem. Whereas numerous 2D or 3D supplies have been proposed as potential quantum spin liquids, Rice College physicist Andriy Nevidomskyy stated there is not any established consensus amongst physicists that any of them qualify.

Nevidomskyy is hoping that may change based mostly on the computational sleuthing he and colleagues from Rice, Florida State College and the Max Planck Institute for Physics of Complicated Programs in Dresden, Germany, revealed this month within the open-access journal npj Quantum Supplies.

“Based mostly on all of the proof we’ve got right this moment, this work confirms that the only crystals of the cerium pyrochlore recognized as candidate 3D quantum spin liquids in 2019 are certainly quantum spin liquids with fractionalized spin excitations,” he stated.

The inherent property of electrons that results in magnetism is spin. Every electron behaves like a tiny bar magnet with a north and south pole, and when measured, particular person electron spins all the time level up or down. In most on a regular basis supplies, spins level up or down at random. However electrons are delinquent by nature, and this will trigger them to rearrange their spins in relation to their neighbors in some circumstances. In magnets, for instance, spins are collectively organized in the identical route, and in antiferromagnets they’re organized in an up-down, up-down sample.

At very low temperatures, quantum results turn out to be extra distinguished, and this causes electrons to rearrange their spins collectively in most supplies, even these the place spins would level in random instructions at room temperature. Quantum spin liquids are a counterexample the place spins don’t level in a particular route — even up or down — irrespective of how chilly the fabric turns into.

“A quantum spin liquid, by its very nature, is an instance of a fractionalized state of matter,” stated Nevidomskyy, affiliate professor of physics and astronomy and a member of each the Rice Quantum Initiative and the Rice Middle for Quantum Supplies (RCQM). “The person excitations will not be spin flips from as much as down or vice versa. They’re these weird, delocalized objects that carry half of 1 spin diploma of freedom. It is like half of a spin.”

Nevidomskyy was a part of the 2019 examine led by Rice experimental physicist Pengcheng Dai that discovered the primary proof that cerium zirconium pyrochlore was a quantum spin liquid. The crew’s samples had been the primary of their variety: Pyrochlores due to their 2-to-2-to-7 ratio of cerium, zirconium and oxygen, and single crystals as a result of the atoms inside had been organized in a steady, unbroken lattice. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments by Dai and colleagues revealed a quantum spin liquid hallmark, a continuum of spin excitations measured at temperatures as little as 35 millikelvin.

“You may argue that they discovered the suspect and charged him with the crime,” Nevidomskyy stated. “Our job on this new examine was to show to the jury that the suspect is responsible.”

Nevidomskyy and colleagues constructed their case utilizing state-of-the-art Monte Carlo strategies, precise diagonalization in addition to analytical instruments to carry out the spin dynamics calculations for an present quantum mechanical mannequin of cerium zirconium pyrochlore. The examine was conceived by Nevidomskyy and Max Planck’s Roderich Moessner, and the Monte Carlo simulations had been carried out by Florida State’s Anish Bhardwaj and Hitesh Changlani with contributions from Rice’s Han Yan and Max Planck’s Shu Zhang.

“The framework for this concept was identified, however the precise parameters, of which there are at the very least 4, weren’t,” Nevidomskyy stated. “In several compounds, these parameters may have totally different values. Our aim was to search out these values for cerium pyrochlore and decide whether or not they describe a quantum spin liquid.

“It might be like a ballistics skilled who’s utilizing Newton’s second regulation to calculate a bullet’s trajectory,” he stated. “Newton’s regulation is understood, however it solely has predictive energy in the event you provide the preliminary situations just like the bullet’s mass and preliminary velocity. These preliminary situations are analogous to those parameters. We needed to reverse engineer, or sleuth out, ‘What are these preliminary situations inside this cerium materials?’ and, ‘Does that match the prediction of this quantum spin liquid?'”

To construct a convincing case, the researchers examined the mannequin towards thermodynamic, neutron-scattering and magnetization outcomes from beforehand revealed experimental research of cerium zirconium pyrochlore.

“When you simply have one piece of proof, you would possibly inadvertently discover a number of fashions that also match the outline,” Nevidomskyy stated. “We really matched not one, however three totally different items of proof. So, a single candidate needed to match all three experiments.”

Some research have implicated the identical kind of quantum magnetic fluctuations that come up in quantum spin liquids as a potential trigger for unconventional superconductivity. However Nevidomskyy stated the computational findings are primarily of basic curiosity to physicists.

“This satisfies our innate need, as physicists, to learn the way nature works,” he stated. “There isn’t any utility I do know of which may profit. It isn’t instantly tied to quantum computing, though concepts exist for utilizing fractionalized excitations as a platform for logical qubits.”

He stated one significantly attention-grabbing level for physicists is the deep connection between quantum spin liquids and the experimental realization of magnetic monopoles, theoretical particles whose potential existence continues to be debated by cosmologists and high-energy physicists.

“When folks speak about fractionalization, what they imply is the system behaves as if a bodily particle, like an electron, splits into two halves that type of wander round after which recombine someplace later,” Nevidomskyy stated. “And in pyrochlore magnets such because the one we studied, these wandering objects furthermore behave like quantum magnetic monopoles.”

Magnetic monopoles might be visualized as remoted magnetic poles like both the upward or downward dealing with pole of a single electron.

“In fact, in classical physics one can by no means isolate only one finish of a bar magnet,” he stated. “The north and south monopoles all the time are available in pairs. However in quantum physics, magnetic monopoles can hypothetically exist, and quantum theorists constructed these nearly 100 years in the past to discover basic questions on quantum mechanics.

“So far as we all know, magnetic monopoles do not exist in a uncooked kind in our universe,” Nevidomskyy stated. “However it seems {that a} fancy model of monopoles does exist in these cerium pyrochlore quantum spin liquids. A single spin flip creates two fractionalized quasiparticles referred to as spinons that behave like monopoles and wander across the crystal lattice.”

The examine additionally discovered proof that monopole-like spinons had been created in an uncommon approach in cerium zirconium pyrochlore. As a result of tetrahedral association of magnetic atoms within the pyrochlore, the examine suggests they develop octupolar magnetic moments — spin-like magnetic quasiparticles with eight poles — at low temperatures. The analysis confirmed spinons within the materials had been produced from each these octupolar sources and extra standard, dipolar spin moments.

“Our modeling established the precise proportions of interactions of those two elements with each other,” Nevidomskyy stated. “It opens a brand new chapter within the theoretical understanding of not solely the cerium pyrochlore supplies however of octupolar quantum spin liquids generally.”

The analysis was funded by the Nationwide Science Basis’s Division of Supplies Analysis (1917511, 1644779, 2046570, 1742928, 1748958, 1607611), the Welch Basis (C-1818) and the German Analysis Basis (SFB-1143-247310070, EXC-2147-390858490). The scientists thank the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Aspen Middle for Physics the place a portion of the analysis was carried out.

RCQM leverages world partnerships and the strengths of greater than 20 Rice analysis teams to handle questions associated to quantum supplies. RCQM is supported by Rice’s places of work of the provost and the vice provost for analysis, the Wiess Faculty of Pure Sciences, the Brown Faculty of Engineering, the Smalley-Curl Institute and the departments of Physics and Astronomy, Electrical and Laptop Engineering, and Supplies Science and NanoEngineering.

Shipping poses significant threat to the endangered whale shark —

Marine biologists from the Marine Organic Affiliation (MBA) and the College of Southampton have led ground-breaking analysis which signifies that deadly collisions of whale sharks with giant ships are vastly underestimated, and may very well be the explanation why populations are falling.

Whale shark numbers have been declining lately in lots of places, however it’s not completely clear why that is taking place.

As a result of whale sharks spend a considerable amount of time in floor waters and collect in coastal areas, specialists theorised that collisions with ships may very well be inflicting substantial whale shark deaths; however there was beforehand no method of monitoring this risk.

Scientists from 50 worldwide analysis establishments and universities tracked the actions of each whale sharks and ships throughout the globe to establish areas of threat and attainable collisions. Satellite tv for pc tracked motion knowledge from almost 350 whale sharks was submitted into the International Shark Motion Undertaking, led by researchers from the MBA.

The staff mapped shark ‘hotspots’ which overlapped with world fleets of cargo, tanker, passenger, and fishing vessels — the sorts of giant ships able to putting and killing a whale shark — to disclose that over 90 per cent of whale shark actions fell underneath the footprint of transport exercise.

The research additionally confirmed that whale shark tag transmissions have been ending extra usually in busy transport lanes than anticipated, even once they dominated out technical failures. The staff concluded that lack of transmissions was doubtless because of whale sharks being struck, killed and sinking to the ocean flooring.

College of Southampton PhD Researcher Freya Womersley, who led the research as a part of the International Shark Motion Undertaking mentioned: “The maritime transport business that enables us to supply a wide range of on a regular basis merchandise from everywhere in the world, could also be inflicting the decline of whale sharks, that are a vastly necessary species in our oceans.”

Whale sharks are slow-moving ocean giants which may develop as much as 20m in size and feed on microscopic animals known as zooplankton. Whale sharks assist regulate the ocean’s plankton ranges and play an necessary position within the marine meals net and wholesome ocean ecosystems.

Professor David Sims, Senior Analysis Fellow on the MBA and College of Southampton and founding father of the International Shark Motion Undertaking mentioned: “Extremely, a number of the tags recording depth in addition to location confirmed whale sharks transferring into transport lanes after which sinking slowly to the seafloor a whole bunch of metres beneath, which is the ‘smoking gun’ of a deadly ship strike.”

“It’s unhappy to suppose that many deaths of those unbelievable animals have occurred globally because of ships with out us even understanding to take preventative measures.” says Sims.

At current there are not any worldwide rules to guard whale sharks in opposition to ship collisions. The analysis staff say that this species faces an unsure future if motion is just not taken quickly. They hope their findings can inform administration choices and defend whale sharks from additional inhabitants declines sooner or later.

Womersley mentioned: “Collectively we have to put time and vitality into growing methods to guard this endangered species from industrial transport now, earlier than it’s too late, in order that the biggest fish on Earth can stand up to threats which might be predicted to accentuate in future, similar to altering ocean climates.”


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Living near regions prone to wildfires may boost risk of developing lung cancer and brain tumors —

A brand new research from McGill College finds greater incidence of lung most cancers and mind tumors in folks uncovered to wildfires. The research, which tracks over two million Canadians over a interval of 20 years, is the primary to look at how proximity to forest fires could affect most cancers threat.

“Wildfires are likely to occur in the identical places every year, however we all know little or no in regards to the long-term well being results of those occasions. Our research exhibits that dwelling in shut proximity to wildfires could enhance the danger of sure cancers,” says Scott Weichenthal, an Affiliate Professor within the Division of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Well being at McGill College.

Revealed in The Lancet Planetary Well being, the research exhibits that individuals dwelling inside 50-kilometer of wildfires over the previous 10 years had a ten per cent greater incidence of mind tumors and 4.9 per cent greater incidence of lung most cancers, in comparison with folks dwelling additional away.

Impacts of local weather change on human well being

With the altering local weather, wildfires are predicted to grow to be extra prevalent, extreme, and longer in length sooner or later — and they’re more and more acknowledged as a worldwide well being downside. “Most of the pollution emitted by wildfires are identified human carcinogens, suggesting that publicity may enhance most cancers threat in people,” says Jill Korsiak, a PhD scholar in Professor Weichenthal’s lab who led the evaluation.

Wildfires usually happen in comparable areas every year, and consequently, folks dwelling in close by communities is likely to be uncovered to carcinogenic wildfire pollution on a power foundation, warn the researchers.

Lingering dangerous pollution

Along with impacts on air high quality, wildfires additionally pollute aquatic, soil, and indoor environments. Whereas some pollution return to regular concentrations shortly after the hearth has stopped burning, different chemical compounds would possibly persist within the surroundings for lengthy durations of time, together with heavy metals and hydrocarbons. “Publicity to dangerous environmental pollution would possibly proceed past the interval of energetic burning by means of a number of routes of publicity,” provides Professor Weichenthal.

Nonetheless, extra analysis is critical to know the advanced combination of environmental pollution launched throughout wildfires, observe the researchers. Additionally they observe that additional work is required to develop extra long-term estimates of the power well being results of wildfires.

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New research documents domestic cattle genetics in modern bison herds —

A brand new research printed within the journal Scientific Reviews has revealed the strongest proof so far that every one bison in North America carry a number of small, however clearly identifiable, areas of DNA that originated from home cattle.

Within the research, Texas A&M College School of Veterinary Drugs & Biomedical Sciences (CVMBS) researchers, led by James Derr and Brian Davis, in contrast genome sequences among the many main historic lineages of bison to 1,842 home cattle, establishing that every one analyzed bison genomes contained proof of cattle introgression.

“This comparative research clearly paperwork that the individuals accountable for saving the bison from extinction within the late 1800s are additionally accountable for introducing cattle genetics into this species,” Derr stated.

This research updates findings from a collection of research printed 20 years in the past wherein Derr’s group revealed that only some bison herds existed that gave the impression to be freed from home cattle introgression. Now, with higher genetic expertise, these researchers have proven that even these herds usually are not free from hybridization.

“Right this moment, it seems that all main public, non-public, tribal, and non-governmental group bison herds have low ranges of cattle genomic introgression,” stated Sam Stroupe, a Ph.D. scholar in Derr’s lab and first creator of the research. “This consists of Yellowstone Nationwide Park, in addition to Elk Island Nationwide Park in Canada, which have been regarded as freed from cattle introgression based mostly on earlier genetic research.”

Derr stated that these new findings will even have ramifications for bison conservation efforts; on this case, their findings might really make conservation efforts simpler, since sure herds will not must be remoted.

Legacy Of Crossbreeding

This shared genetic ancestry is the results of a number of hybridization occasions between North American bison and cattle during the last 200 years, which adopted the well-documented bison inhabitants crash of the 1800s.

These hybridization occasions have been largely human-made, as cattle ranchers within the late 1800s deliberately bred home cattle with bison in an effort to create a greater beef-producing animal. Whereas the crossbreeding was profitable, they failed to attain their principal function, and the hassle was largely deserted.

On the identical time, William Hornaday and the American Bison Society have been starting nationwide conservation efforts, sounding the alarm that North American bison have been being pushed to extinction. Consequently, a nationwide motion started to determine new bison conservation populations and protect current bison populations.

Nonetheless, the one bison accessible to determine these new conservation herds have been virtually completely animals from the cattlemen’s non-public herds.

“Consequently, these well-intentioned hybridization efforts go away a sophisticated genetic legacy,” Davis stated. “With out these non-public herds, it’s doable bison would have grow to be extinct. On the identical time, this intentional introduction of interspecies DNA resulted in remnant cattle footprints within the genomes of your complete modern species.

“We now have the computational and molecular instruments to check bison genomic sequences to 1000’s of cattle and conclusively decide the extent and distribution of home cattle genetics in bison that characterize every of those historic bison lineages,” he stated.

Based on Derr, it is very important acknowledge that though hybridization between carefully associated wildlife species has occurred naturally over time — well-known examples embrace coyotes and japanese wolves, grizzlies and polar bears, and bobcats and Canadian lynx — the bison-cattle hybridization is nearly fully a purposeful, human-made occasion that occurred to coincide with the large inhabitants bottleneck of the late 1800s.

“Two major occasions, a particularly small bison inhabitants measurement and widespread curiosity in creating hybrid animals, modified and formed the genomes of this species in methods we’re simply now beginning to perceive,” Derr stated. “However, this species did survive and now they’re thriving throughout the plains of North America.”

Reactions From The Bison Conservation Group

As one of many world’s most iconic animals, bison play a variety of vital, and generally conflicting, roles in society.

Whereas some contemplate them a wildlife species that should not be domesticated, others contemplate them an vital financial livestock animal; though bison are raised as wildlife in state and federal parks and wildlife refuges, most bison alive immediately are owned by non-public ranchers and are raised for meat and fiber manufacturing.

To others, they maintain spiritual and non secular roles, in addition to being icons of continental delight. In 2016, bison have been even named the U.S. nationwide mammal.

“Although considered in numerous methods, bison conservation is a precedence to many alternative teams, and it’s crucial that we agree to make use of the perfect accessible scientific info to make choices transferring ahead,” Stroupe stated. “These findings clearly present that, utilizing trendy genomic biotechnology, we are able to uncover many historic particulars concerning the previous histories of a species and use this info to supply knowledgeable stewardship in establishing conservation insurance policies into the long run.”

Whereas many of those livestock herds are fairly small with 100 animals or much less, there are some exceptions. Turner Enterprises in Bozeman, Mont., is the most important non-public producer of bison, with over 45,000 animals unfold throughout a number of states.

Based on Mark Kossler, vice chairman of ranch operations, Turner Enterprises will use this new info to additional enhance its conservation efforts.

Turner Enterprises has used the bison genetic work of Texas A&M College for the final 20 years to construction genetic administration of our maternal herds regarding cattle mitochondrial DNA introgression,” he stated. “We have been absolutely conscious that advancing expertise and mapping of your complete bison genome might reveal that every one bison nuclear DNA might have cattle introgression as effectively.

“Understanding that the North American Bison herd has widespread introgression of cattle DNA, although in small quantities, will enable our operations to construction future genetic administration between our herds to keep up broad genetic variety with out the fear of cross contaminating herds that have been perceived to be ‘clear’ of introgression,” he stated. “That is useful info for the bison group. We’re appreciative of Texas A&M College’s analysis and diligence in offering the bison group the ultimate reply on this query of bison genetic purity.”

Les Kroeger, president of the Canadian Bison Affiliation, which helped fund Derr’s analysis, agreed that higher info is all the time a constructive step for his or her sustainability and conservation efforts.

“As analysis instruments enhance, we acquire a greater understanding of the advanced historical past of bison,” he stated. “With this info we are able to proceed to paved the way to develop wholesome populations of this iconic animal for future generations to get pleasure from. The industrial bison trade continues to help analysis and conservation initiatives whereas persevering with to sustainably produce a high-quality protein for shoppers to get pleasure from.”

Chad Kremer, president of the Nationwide Bison Affiliation, added that the knowledge will give bison producers throughout the nation higher info to handle their herds.

“The Nationwide Bison Affiliation welcomes these analysis findings as we proceed to unravel the lengthy and complex historical past of the American bison’s genetic lineage,” he stated. “Analysis tasks corresponding to this proceed to help producers of their capability to keep up wholesome and numerous genetics in bison herds immediately. Genetics are a cornerstone of modern-day herd administration, and one thing the Nationwide Bison Affiliation promotes closely in its outreach and schooling to producers throughout the continent via our North American Bison Registry. It’s our hope that bison producers will make the most of this knowledge and expertise to proceed to enhance their very own herds’ genetics whereas persevering with to revive bison to their native panorama.”

4D composite printing can improve the wings of drones —

The aviation trade faces a number of pressures from greater gas prices and elevated scrutiny over the environmental and quality-of-life impacts from its plane. Researchers are in search of new strategies of holding bills down whereas bettering total effectivity, and the comparatively new market of unmanned aerial autos (UAVs) — or drones — isn’t any exception.

UAVs are occupying an ever-growing area in aviation circles. In a brand new paper printed within the journal Composite Buildings, Suong Hoa and his pupil co-authors current a way to make UAV wings cheaper to fabricate and extra environment friendly in flight.

Hoa is a professor of mechanical, industrial and aerospace engineering on the Gina Cody Faculty of Engineering and Pc Science. Utilizing a way Hoa pioneered referred to as 4D printing of composites, the authors carried out a feasibility examine on the applying of a brand new approach to manufacture adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) morphing wings. The experimental expertise replaces the generally used hinged wing flap with one that’s hooked up to the primary wing physique however can bend as much as 20 levels.

“Our paper reveals {that a} UAV utilizing this sort of wing can help quantity of load for small or medium-sized autos,” says Hoa, director of the Concordia Centre for Composites.

Utilizing materials reactions

4D printing is much like 3D printing besides that it modifications supplies from location to location. The separate materials is used as a result of it’s reactive to a specific stimulus: water, chilly or warmth, for example. Preliminary printing is finished on a flat floor that’s then uncovered to the stimulus, inflicting a response, and altering the floor form. The fourth dimension refers back to the altered configuration of the once-flat materials.

Composite 4D printing is extra complicated. Fairly than utilizing a smooth, dough-like substance generally utilized by 3D and 4D printers, it depends on a sinewy mixture of lengthy, effective filaments held in place by a resin. Every filament is barely 10 microns thick — about 1/tenth the diameter of a human hair. The 4D composite printer unrolls its filament-resin combination in ultra-thin layers at 90-degree angles from one another. The layers are then compacted collectively and cured in an oven at 180˚C, after which cooled right down to 0˚C, creating an object that’s stiff however not brittle.

Because the authors clarify of their paper, this enables them to create a piece of fabric with a uniform curvature that’s sandwiched in between the wing flap’s higher and decrease surfaces. It’s versatile and powerful sufficient to help the 20-degree deformation the wing requires for flight maneuverability.

“The thought is to have a wing that may change its form simply throughout flight, which might be a terrific profit as in comparison with fixed-wing plane,” Hoa explains.

He believes the composite 4D expertise has nice potential for all method of functions. Its merchandise’ transportability, he says, is a significant draw.

“As a result of it’s flat, it’s simple to package deal to ship to distant areas, from Canada’s Far North to outer area.”

Video of Suong Hoa discussing 4D printing of composites:

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Bali-like temperatures in Wyoming? Fossils reveal tropically hot North America 95 million years ago —

A brand new College of Michigan examine that used fossil oyster shells as paleothermometers discovered the shallow sea that lined a lot of western North America 95 million years in the past was as heat as in the present day’s tropics.

The examine supplies the primary direct temperature knowledge from that huge mid-latitude sea in the course of the top of the Cretaceous Thermal Most, one of many planet’s hottest local weather intervals of the previous a number of hundred million years.

The findings, printed on-line Could 9 within the journal Geology, additionally trace at what could also be in retailer for future generations until emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases are reined in.

“These knowledge point out that the North American inside in the course of the peak of the Cretaceous greenhouse was as heat as the most well liked situations within the modern-day tropics — think about the local weather of Bali, Indonesia, in locations like Utah or Wyoming,” mentioned examine lead writer Matt Jones, a former College of Michigan postdoctoral researcher now on the Smithsonian Establishment’s Nationwide Museum of Pure Historical past.

The examine discovered that common water temperatures within the Western Inside Seaway in the course of the mid-Cretaceous ranged from 28 to 34 levels Celsius (82 F to 93 F), as heat as fashionable tropical extremes just like the Indo-Pacific Heat Pool, which persistently displays the best water temperatures over the most important expanse on the Earth’s floor.

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations within the mid-Cretaceous are nonetheless a subject of debate amongst researchers, however many research have proven ranges in extra of 1,000 elements per million. In the present day’s ranges are a bit over 420 ppm however may surpass 1,000 by the top of this century until fossil-fuel emissions are curtailed, in keeping with local weather scientists.

“These new findings assist resolve temperatures in North America throughout a peak greenhouse heat interval within the geologic previous, which in flip might assist us higher predict simply how heat Earth could also be sooner or later beneath projected greater atmospheric CO2conditions,” mentioned U-M geochemist and examine co-author Sierra Petersen, an assistant professor within the Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences.

To find out simply how sizzling North America was in the course of the peak Cretaceous greenhouse world 95 million years in the past, the researchers analyzed 29 well-preserved oyster shells from a U.S. Geological Survey fossil assortment.

The fossils got here from sandstone and shale outcrops in Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico and Arizona — areas that had been at the same latitude as in the present day however had been underwater in the course of the Cretaceous. At the moment, the Western Inside Seaway stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic and from present-day Utah to Iowa.

Fossils collected throughout the western inside of the U.S. present that the seaway teemed with marine life together with huge clams, spiral-shelled ammonites and extinct kinds of oysters. Dinosaurs roamed the adjoining coastal plains.

For the present examine, researchers used fossil oyster shells collected over a number of many years by Invoice Cobban, one of many preeminent American paleontologists of the twentieth century, and his colleagues. Because the oysters grew, their shells included varied types, or isotopes, of the weather oxygen and carbon, in ratios that reveal the temperature of the encircling seawater.

With a small Dremel drill, Jones sampled the fossil shells and picked up the powdered calcite. Utilizing a state-of-the-art mass spectrometer in Petersen’s U-M lab, the researchers measured the isotopic ratios of carbon and oxygen. Particularly, they appeared on the prevalence of the heavy carbon isotope carbon-13 and the heavy oxygen isotope oxygen-18, and the way typically they had been discovered sure collectively within the calcite crystal construction.

This frequency of bonding of the 2 heavy isotopes, referred to as isotopic clumping, is extremely delicate to the ambient temperature when a mineral is shaped, allowing scientists to reconstruct previous temperatures by means of a not too long ago developed approach referred to as clumped isotope paleothermometry.

“Many generations of geologists have studied the paleontology and stratigraphy of the Western Inside Seaway, offering totally different concepts about previous local weather and a basis of data that made this examine doable,” Jones mentioned. “Nonetheless, no direct paleothermometer measurements existed — till now — from the inside of North America for the height of this Cretaceous greenhouse world.

“This paucity of information has hindered strong understanding of the temperature evolution of North America by means of the Cretaceous and the affect of temperature on the continent’s marine biotas within the seaway, in addition to on terrestrial fauna just like the dinosaurs inhabiting the adjoining coastal plains.”

North American knowledge from the brand new examine is according to earlier research that used conventional oxygen isotope paleothermometry strategies at open-ocean websites globally, in keeping with the authors. These earlier research, which measured the ratio of steady isotopes of oxygen, inferred sea-surface temperatures within the excessive 20s C (low 80s F) from the sub-Antarctic to the mid-30s C (higher 90s F) from the tropics and southern mid-latitudes.

Along with the precise findings quantifying previous world heat within the Western Inside Seaway, the brand new examine additionally demonstrates how this explicit geochemical approach can be utilized to disclose local weather situations within the deep previous, the place prior strategies have struggled.

“Even after working with the clumped isotope paleothermometer for 15 years, it is nonetheless wonderful to me that, given the correct samples, we will basically dip a thermometer right into a 95-million-year-old ocean and determine how heat it was,” Petersen mentioned. “If we would like to have the ability to higher predict how totally different life on Earth might reply to future warming, concrete temperature estimates in previous heat intervals can assist us set higher limits on survivability.”

The opposite writer of the Geology paper is U-M graduate pupil Allison Curley. The work was funded by the Nationwide Science Basis, the College of Michigan and the Peter Buck Fellowship on the Nationwide Museum of Pure Historical past.

Climate change is pushing pine defoliating moth northward 50 years ahead of earlier predictions —

In Finland, local weather change is inflicting the pine pest Panolis flammea, or pine magnificence moth, to shift its vary northward 50 years forward of predictions. Modifications in each the distribution and dimension of the pine magnificence moth inhabitants are linked to greater temperatures, a brand new examine from the College of Japanese Finland exhibits. The findings have been reported in Scandinavian Journal of Forest Analysis.

“This isn’t sudden, since many scientists have beforehand predicted that some insect pests will shift their distribution vary northward on account of rising temperatures brought on by local weather change. Nevertheless, what’s astonishing is that that is occurring 50 years forward of earlier predictions,” Doctoral Researcher Alexander Pulgarin Diaz from the College of Japanese Finland says.

The larvae of the pine magnificence moth feed on the needles of various pine species throughout Central Europe, creating periodical outbreaks typically managed with chemical pesticides. These outbreaks co-occur with different pine insect pests and illnesses and will attain 1000’s of hectares. Outbreaks haven’t been reported in Finland, however situations for his or her improvement may develop into beneficial on account of rising temperatures and forest well being decline — each of that are penalties of local weather change.

Earlier research have proven that temperature is intently associated to the event and distribution of bugs. To check the distribution and dimension of the pine magnificence moth inhabitants in Finland, the researchers coupled the variety of captured people with the earlier yr’s thermal sums for a similar location. For this, they used traps all through Finland and located that this insect pest had unfold into northern Finland, as much as 68°51’N. Additionally, they discovered that its abundance was greater in hotter locations, as in southern Finland.

As local weather change advances and temperatures rise in Finland, the vary and inhabitants density of the pine magnificence moth might also enhance, permitting it to develop into a standard, ample pine-feeder all through the nation. The outcomes of this examine on the pine magnificence moth are parallel with earlier findings on one other main pine defoliator, the Nun moth (Lymantria monacha), which additionally has elevated considerably in Finland since 2000.

The examine was funded by the Academy of Finland Flagship Programme Forest-Human-Machine Interaction -Constructing Resilience, Redefining Worth Networks and Enabling Significant Experiences (UNITE) (resolution no: 337127).

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Complex human childbirth and cognitive abilities a result of walking upright —

Throughout human start, the fetus sometimes navigates a good, convoluted start canal by flexing and rotating its head at numerous levels. This complicated course of comes with a excessive danger of start issues, from extended labor to stillbirth or maternal demise. These issues have been lengthy believed to be the results of a battle between people adapting to strolling upright and our bigger brains.

Dilemma between strolling upright and bigger brains

Bipedalism developed round seven million years in the past and dramatically reshaped the hominin pelvis into an actual start canal. Bigger brains, nonetheless, did not begin to develop till two million years in the past, when the earliest species of the genus Homo emerged. The evolutionary answer to the dilemma led to by these two conflicting evolutionary forces was to present start to neurologically immature and helpless newborns with comparatively small brains — a situation referred to as secondary altriciality.

A analysis group led by Martin Häusler from the Institute of Evolutionary Medication on the College of Zurich (UZH) and a crew headed up by Pierre Frémondière from Aix-Marseille College have now discovered that australopithecines, who lived about 4 to 2 million years in the past, had a fancy start sample in comparison with nice apes. “As a result of australopithecines resembling Lucy had comparatively small mind sizes however already displayed morphological diversifications to bipedalism, they’re ideally suited to research the results of those two conflicting evolutionary forces,” Häusler says.

Typical ratio of fetal and grownup head dimension

The researchers used three-dimensional pc simulations to develop their findings. Since no fossils of new child australopithecines are recognized to exist, they simulated the start course of utilizing totally different fetal head sizes to take into consideration the doable vary of estimates. Each species has a typical ratio between the mind sizes of its newborns and adults. Based mostly on the ratio of non-human primates and the common mind dimension of an grownup Australopithecus, the researchers calculated a imply neonatal mind dimension of 180 g. This might correspond to a dimension of 110 g in people.

For his or her 3D simulations, the researchers additionally took under consideration the elevated pelvic joint mobility throughout being pregnant and decided a sensible tender tissue thickness. They discovered that solely the 110 g fetal head sizes handed by the pelvic inlet and midplane with out problem, in contrast to the 180 g and 145 g sizes. “Because of this Australopithecus newborns have been neurologically immature and depending on assist, just like human infants at the moment,” Häusler explains.

Extended studying key for cognitive and cultural skills

The findings point out that australopithecines are more likely to have practiced a type of cooperative breeding, even earlier than the genus Homo appeared. In comparison with nice apes, the brains developed for longer outdoors the uterus, enabling infants to be taught from different members of the group. “This extended interval of studying is usually thought-about essential for the cognitive and cultural improvement of people,” Häusler says. This conclusion can also be supported by the earliest documented stone instruments, which date again to three.3 million years in the past — lengthy earlier than the genus Homo appeared.

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Latinas had higher levels of many potentially dangerous chemicals —

A nationwide examine that enrolled a extremely various group of pregnant ladies over 12 years discovered rising publicity to chemical compounds from plastics and pesticides which may be dangerous to growth.

Lots of the chemical compounds that the ladies had been uncovered to had been alternative chemical compounds: new types of chemical compounds which have been banned or phased out which may be simply as dangerous as those they changed. The examine additionally discovered many ladies had been uncovered to neonicotinoids, a form of pesticide that’s poisonous to bees.

Researchers measured 103 chemical compounds, principally from pesticides, plastics, and alternative chemical compounds for BPA and phthalates, utilizing a brand new methodology that captured dozens of chemical compounds or chemical traces from a single urine pattern.

Greater than 80 p.c of the chemical compounds had been present in at the least one of many ladies within the examine, and greater than a 3rd of the chemical compounds had been present in a majority of the individuals. The examine additionally discovered that a few of these chemical compounds had been current in larger quantities than seen in earlier research.

“That is the primary time we have been in a position to measure the quantities of chemical compounds in such a big and various group of pregnant ladies — not simply determine chemical compounds,” stated Tracey J. Woodruff, PhD, professor and director of the College of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Program on Reproductive Well being and the Atmosphere and co-director of the UCSF EaRTH Heart, and the senior writer of the examine, showing on-line Might 10, 2022, in Environmental Science & Expertise. “Our findings clarify that the quantity and scope of chemical compounds in pregnant ladies are growing throughout a really weak time of growth for each the pregnant individual and the fetus.”

Prenatal publicity to industrial chemical compounds can come from air, meals, water, plastics, and different industrial and shopper merchandise. Though these chemical compounds could possibly be dangerous to being pregnant and baby growth, few of those chemical compounds are routinely monitored in folks.

The examine included 171 ladies from California, Georgia, Illinois, New Hampshire, New York, and Puerto Rico who’re a part of the Nationwide Institutes of Well being Environmental influences on Youngster Well being Outcomes program. About one-third (34%) had been white, 40% had been Latina, 20% had been Black, and the remaining 6% had been from different or a number of teams.

The examine discovered larger exposures for non-white ladies, these with decrease academic attainment, or who had been single or had been uncovered to tobacco. However Latinas had particularly excessive ranges of parabens, that are used as preservatives, in addition to phthalates and bisphenols, that are utilized in plastics.

“Whereas pesticides and alternative chemical compounds had been prevalent in all ladies, we had been shocked to search out that Latinas had considerably larger ranges of parabens, phthalates and bisphenols,” stated Jessie Buckley, PhD, affiliate professor of environmental well being and engineering, in addition to of epidemiology, at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg College of Public Well being and first writer of the examine. “This could possibly be the results of larger exposures to merchandise with chemical compounds, corresponding to processed meals or private care merchandise,” Buckley stated.

Funding: Analysis reported on this publication was supported by the Environmental influences on Youngster Well being Outcomes (ECHO) program, Workplace of The Director, Nationwide Institutes of Well being, beneath Award Numbers U2COD023375 (Coordinating Heart), U24OD023382 (Information Evaluation Heart), U24OD023319 (PRO Core), U2CES026542 (HHEAR), and UH3OD023251, UH3OD023272, UH3OD023275, UH3OD023287, UH3OD023290, UH3OD023318, UH3OD023342, UH3OD023349, UH3OD023347, UH3OD023365 (cohort grantees).

Fossil discovery reveals that trilobites had clasper-like limbs used for mating —

Due to their simply fossilized exoskeleton, trilobites largely dominate the fossil report of early complicated animal life. Nonetheless, trilobite appendages and the anatomy of the underside of their physique are usually not effectively preserved, which makes it troublesome to deduce their mating and reproductive behaviors.

Till now, fashionable arthropods have been closely used as an analog to deduce the mating conduct of trilobites, however a brand new research revealed Friday in Geology described the invention of a specialised limb in a mature male trilobite species that sheds gentle on trilobite’s mating behaviors for the primary time.

Detailed research of a fossil specimen of the trilobite species Olenoides serratus revealed two units of peculiarly diminished appendages in the course of its physique. Every of those appendages is interpreted to be a clasper-like limb, which mature males would use to know females throughout mating to make sure that the male is in one of the best place for exterior fertilization of the eggs.

“Sometimes you’ll get fossil specimens that really died and bought preserved within the act of copulation, and there is a few bugs which are preserved throughout mating, however wanting that, it is laborious to deduce mating behaviors,” mentioned Sarah Losso, lead creator of the research. “There’s about 20,000 described trilobite species, however lower than 40 species have preserved appendages. That is the primary time that actually vital appendage specialization is seen in trilobites. The invention teaches us extra in regards to the conduct of trilobites and reveals that the sort of complicated mating conduct already existed by the mid-Cambrian.”

The O. serratus fossil specimen is roughly 500 million years outdated from the Cambrian Interval and was initially collected from the Burgess Shale in British Columbia, Canada, which is a world-renowned fossil deposit for its soft-bodied preservation of Cambrian organisms. The fossil specimen is at the moment housed on the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, Canada.

Losso systematically studied and photographed over 60 trilobite specimens from the Burgess Shale that had preserved appendages. The one specimen of O. serratus was the one one to show these uniquely specialised limbs. In response to Losso, the fossil specimen is damaged and is lacking many of the exoskeleton that covers the top and half of the physique, however the truth that it was damaged helped them to see the clasper-like limbs, which in any other case wouldn’t have been seen and would have been fully hid. Till now, this particular clasper-like appendage was in any other case unknown for O. serratus or different trilobite species to this point.

Horseshoe crabs are generally used as fashionable analogs for trilobites given their related look and life, and this particular trilobite limb seems functionally much like the claspers that male horseshoe crabs have and use to carry onto the spines of a feminine throughout exterior fertilization. Whereas it was beforehand presumed that trilobites had mating behaviors much like horseshoe crabs, this fossil discovery supplies proof for the similarities of their reproductive methods based mostly on their anatomical options.

“Trilobites and horseshoe crabs will not be significantly carefully associated to one another, however they share an identical total group, they usually reside in related marine environments. It is a bit of bit like how a bat can fly and a bumblebee can fly. They each use wings, however the wings themselves are fairly totally different in how they’re made and the way they work. This discovery suggests to some extent that in case you are a helmet-looking marine animal that lives on the sediment, there are solely so some ways you may successfully mate externally,” mentioned Javier Ortega-Hernández, co-author of the research.

The invention of this clasper-like limb in trilobites reveals that the complicated mating behaviors which are noticed in fashionable arthropods originated through the Cambrian Explosion over 500 million years in the past. It’s the earliest report of an appendage of this sort used for copy and represents a level of limb specialization for a non-feeding operate.

“Historically, trilobites are checked out as examples of primitive animals. This discovery reveals that they may truly show complicated behaviors for copy, much like what a few of the animals that now we have at this time are doing,” mentioned Ortega-Hernández. “It’s actually contributing in direction of a greater understanding of the Cambrian setting as truly being a thriving, ecologically complicated system, quite than a lesser model of the biosphere now we have at this time.”

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New insights on how a human enzyme that converts chemicals produced by marine sponges and optimised synthetic derivatives into cell-killing compounds could aid the development of new anti-cancer or anti-infection drugs —

A human enzyme converts chemical substances produced by marine sponges and associated artificial derivatives into cell-killing compounds, exhibits a research printed immediately in eLife.

The invention means that it might be attainable to develop new therapies for most cancers or bacterial infections by benefiting from this enzyme and related pure or bioinspired compounds.

Pharmaceutical firms have studied compounds produced by marine sponges as potential anti-cancer therapies because the Fifties, when scientists found that one such compound was an efficient therapy for a kind of blood most cancers.

“There are literally thousands of potential cell-killing compounds produced by marine sponges and different marine organisms, however precisely how they work to destroy cells continues to be unknown for many of them,” says Sébastien Britton, Principal Investigator on the Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale, IPBS), College of Toulouse, France. Britton is a co-senior writer of the research alongside his colleagues Remi Chauvin and Yves Génisson, from the College of Toulouse.

Amongst pure merchandise remoted from marine species with potential medicinal properties, a specific chemical that stems from marine sponges displays a singular construction. This construction combines alcohol and acetylene features on a lipid spine, offering so-called lipidic alkynyl carbinols compounds, with a long-remarked cell-killing potential.

To be taught extra concerning the cell-killing mechanisms of those compounds, the researchers targeted on probably the most potent artificial derivatives referred to as dialkynylcarbinols, that are as much as round 1,000 instances extra energetic than their sponge-produced pure dad and mom. The crew screened human haploid cells for mutations that made them proof against being killed by dialkynylcarbinols. They discovered that mutations in a gene associated to a human enzyme referred to as HSD17B11 constantly rendered these compounds innocent to the cells.

The crew subsequent carried out a collection of experiments exhibiting that the HSD17B11 enzyme converts dialkynylcarbinols into an energetic kind which then binds to a number of proteins concerned within the ‘high quality management mechanisms’ of mobile proteins. In consequence, defective proteins construct up within the cells and ultimately kill them.

Subsequent, they examined the most cancers cell-killing capability of this HSD17B11-activated chemical on 15 several types of most cancers cell. They confirmed that the compound was significantly efficient at killing a uncommon kind of paediatric bone most cancers referred to as osteosarcoma. Against this, most cancers cells missing the HSD17B11 enzyme survived publicity to the compound.

HSD17B11 is only one member of a giant household of enzymes referred to as Quick-chain Dehydrogenases/Reductases (SDRs), with over 500,000 representatives at the moment present in all residing organisms. To start exploiting the mechanism they recognized, the crew designed novel chemical substances that have been particularly transformed into cell-killing compounds by different SDR enzymes, demonstrating the flexibility of those chemical substances to selectively kill cells or organisms expressing a particular SDR.

“Marine sponges might produce these sorts of chemical substances to hijack a predator’s enzymes, which in flip convert them into cell-killing compounds,” explains Britton.

“Collectively, our findings establish an untapped toolbox filled with pure and artificial chemical compounds which might be transformed by widespread enzymes into probably helpful medication. Sooner or later, scientists could possibly use these chemical substances to assist deal with particular cancers, whereas opening prospects to deal with infectious illnesses on the identical precept.”

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How a gene mutation causes higher intelligence —

Synapses are the contact factors within the mind through which nerve cells ‘discuss’ to one another. Disturbances on this communication result in illnesses of the nervous system, since altered synaptic proteins, for instance, can impair this advanced molecular mechanism. This may end up in delicate signs, but in addition very extreme disabilities in these affected.

The curiosity of the 2 neurobiologists Professor Tobias Langenhan and Professor Manfred Heckmann, from Leipzig and Würzburg respectively, was aroused after they learn in a scientific publication a couple of mutation that damages a synaptic protein. At first, the affected sufferers attracted scientists’ consideration as a result of the mutation triggered them to go blind. Nonetheless, docs then observed that the sufferers had been additionally of above-average intelligence. “It’s extremely uncommon for a mutation to result in enchancment reasonably than lack of perform,” says Langenhan, professor and holder of a chair on the Rudolf Schönheimer Institute of Biochemistry on the School of Medication.

The 2 neurobiologists from Leipzig and Würzburg have been utilizing fruit flies to analyse synaptic capabilities for a few years. “Our analysis undertaking was designed to insert the sufferers’ mutation into the corresponding gene within the fly and use strategies corresponding to electrophysiology to check what then occurs to the synapses. It was our assumption that the mutation makes sufferers so intelligent as a result of it improves communication between the neurons which contain the injured protein,” explains Langenhan. “After all, you’ll be able to’t conduct these measurements on the synapses within the brains of human sufferers. It’s a must to use animal fashions for that.”

75 per cent of genes that trigger illnesses in people additionally exist in fruit flies

First, the scientists, along with researchers from Oxford, confirmed that the fly protein known as RIM appears molecularly equivalent to that of people. This was important so as to have the ability to examine the modifications within the human mind within the fly. Within the subsequent step, the neurobiologists inserted mutations into the fly genome that appeared precisely as they did within the diseased folks. They then took electrophysiological measurements of synaptic exercise. “We really noticed that the animals with the mutation confirmed a a lot elevated transmission of knowledge on the synapses. This superb impact on the fly synapses might be present in the identical or an identical approach in human sufferers, and will clarify their elevated cognitive efficiency, but in addition their blindness,” concludes Professor Langenhan.

The scientists additionally discovered how the elevated transmission on the synapses happens: the molecular elements within the transmitting nerve cell that set off the synaptic impulses transfer nearer collectively because of the mutation impact and result in elevated launch of neurotransmitters. A novel technique, super-resolution microscopy, was one of many strategies used within the examine. “This provides us a instrument to have a look at and even rely particular person molecules and confirms that the molecules within the firing cell are nearer collectively than they usually are,” says Professor Langenhan, who was additionally assisted within the examine by Professor Hartmut Schmidt’s analysis group from the Carl Ludwig Institute in Leipzig.

“The undertaking superbly demonstrates how a unprecedented mannequin animal just like the fruit fly can be utilized to realize a really deep understanding of human mind illness. The animals are genetically extremely just like people. It’s estimated that 75 per cent of the genes involving illness in people are additionally discovered within the fruit fly,” explains Professor Langenhan, pointing to additional analysis on the subject on the School of Medication: “Now we have began a number of joint initiatives with human geneticists, pathologists and the crew of the Built-in Analysis and Therapy Middle (IFB) AdiposityDiseases; primarily based at Leipzig College Hospital, they’re finding out developmental mind problems, the event of malignant tumours and weight problems. Right here, too, we’ll insert disease-causing mutations into the fruit fly to copy and higher perceive human illness.”

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Study identifies potential target for treating childhood blood cancer —

Scientists have pinpointed a attainable new goal for treating sufferers with the blood most cancers juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), in line with a examine printed as we speak in eLife.

Their findings in zebrafish and JMML sufferers recommend that remedy utilizing anti-inflammatories may very well be a attainable new method to combating the illness.

JMML is a extremely aggressive blood most cancers with poor outcomes for sufferers. Kids with a comparatively widespread developmental syndrome known as Noonan Syndrome (NS) have a excessive danger of creating a situation much like JMML, known as myeloproliferative neoplasm, which might then progress to JMML. Probably the most frequent genetic reason behind JMML and NS is a mutation within the PTPN11 gene, which encodes the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2.

“Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are thought of to be the cells of origin for JMML,” says first creator Maja Solman, Postdoctoral Fellow on the Hubrecht Institute, Utrecht, Netherlands. “At present, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the one remedy for the illness, nevertheless it has a relapse charge of fifty%. With such restricted remedy choices for JMML, we needed to achieve a greater understanding of how the illness develops to establish different attainable methods of concentrating on it.”

To do that, Solman and the staff used a novel zebrafish mannequin with a mutation in SHP2 — equal to the most typical mutation in NS sufferers which might trigger JMML. They used a way known as single-cell transcriptomics to look at the extent of gene expression within the animals’ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. The evaluation confirmed a rise within the variety of monocyte and macrophage progenitor cells within the fish embryos, and that these cells expressed genes related to the immune response.

The staff subsequent in contrast these outcomes with their evaluation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which contained SHP2 mutations, from the bone marrow of JMML sufferers. They discovered an analogous sample of proinflammatory gene expression in these cells because the one they recognized within the zebrafish.

Lastly, they handled the zebrafish embryos with an anti-inflammatory drug known as dexamethasone. They discovered that the drug helped rescue JMML-like blood defects within the fish, suggesting that anti-inflammatories may sooner or later be an vital remedy technique for JMML.

“Our work reveals hanging similarities within the proinflammatory response of human and zebrafish cells containing SHP2 mutations, and reveals that inhibiting this response can enhance JMML-like signs in a zebrafish mannequin,” concludes senior creator Jeroen den Hertog, Group Chief and Managing Director on the Hubrecht Institute, and Professor of Molecular Developmental Zoology at Leiden College, Netherlands. “Collectively, these findings lay the groundwork for future research to confirm the effectiveness of anti-inflammatories as a possible new remedy method for JMML sufferers.”

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Tumor release of lactate forces nearby cells into supportive role —

Tumors can drive neighboring cells into supporting most cancers progress by releasing lactate into their native setting, in accordance with researchers at Weill Cornell Medication. The findings pave the way in which for future drug remedies that thwart that protection mechanism to assist most cancers sufferers.

Within the research, revealed Could 10 in Cell Reviews, the researchers decided how tumors, as they develop, recruit close by cells known as fibroblasts to work as their enablers. Fibroblasts are a part of the “stroma,” or connective tissue of organs, and usually have necessary restore and upkeep capabilities. However cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) purchase properties that enable them to help tumors in ways in which make the tumors extra malignant and tougher to kill.

The researchers additionally found that extensively used most cancers medicine known as PARP-1 inhibitors mimic one of many key steps in CAF recruitment, and thus could usually hobble their very own effectiveness by switching native fibroblasts to this cancer-enabling mode.

“Future therapeutics that block this cancer-associated state of fibroblasts may be helpful on their very own or as a means to enhance the effectiveness of PARP-1 inhibitors,” mentioned research co-senior writer Dr. Maria Diaz-Meco, the Homer T. Hirst III Professor of Oncology in Pathology and a member of the Sandra and Edward Meyer Most cancers Middle at Weill Cornell Medication.

Dr. Diaz-Meco collaborated within the research with the laboratory of co-senior writer Dr. Jorge Moscat, additionally the Homer T. Hirst III Professor of Oncology in Pathology and a member Meyer Most cancers Middle at Weill Cornell Medication. The co-first authors are Dr. Juan Linares, teacher in pathology and laboratory medication, and Dr. Tania Cid-Diaz, postdoctoral affiliate in pathology and laboratory medication.

Scientists have identified for many years that creating tumors usually modify their native environments in ways in which promote their very own survival and progress. Most cancers-associated fibroblasts are a central part of the tumor microenvironment in prostate, lung, colon and plenty of different most cancers varieties. Focusing on these cells is subsequently seen as a promising complementary method to straightforward most cancers remedy — and one that might work very broadly towards cancers of various mobile and genetic origins.

“Most cancers-associated fibroblasts help tumor progress by offering progress components and important metabolites to the tumor, by fending-off anti-tumor immune cells, and in lots of different methods,” Dr. Moscat mentioned. “The result’s a tumor that’s extra malignant and treatment-resistant.”

The Moscat and Diaz-Meco laboratories found a number of years in the past {that a} protein known as p62, produced in fibroblasts, usually suppresses the CAF state, although many tumors discover a option to restore this state by dialing down fibroblast p62 manufacturing. Within the new research, they confirmed that tumors obtain this by secreting excessive ranges of an natural compound known as lactate, also called lactic acid.

Lactate is a traditional byproduct of sure energy-production processes in cells — processes which can be usually hyperactive in tumors. In experiments with prostate most cancers cells, the researchers detailed the molecular chain of occasions by which tumor-secreted lactate disrupts the conventional metabolism of fibroblasts, resulting in a downshifting of p62 gene exercise and the activation of the tumor-enabling CAF state.

By itself the discovering is important as a result of it illuminates a serious cancer-promoting pathway, which in precept will be focused with future medicine as a standalone or add-on remedy technique.

However there was a second, stunning discovering. A key step main from tumor lactate secretion to fibroblast p62 suppression turned out to be the inhibition of a DNA-repair enzyme known as PARP1. A category of most cancers medicine known as PARP1 inhibitors has the identical impact — suggesting that these medicine may be working partly towards themselves by making a extra tumor-friendly microenvironment.

The researchers confirmed in most cancers cells and mouse fashions that the PARP1 inhibitor olaparib does scale back p62 in fibroblasts, and pushes them into the CAF state, which in flip makes tumors extra proof against the drug’s main cancer-killing impact.

Thus, the researchers emphasised, future remedies that reprogram CAF cells to the non-cancer state or forestall their growth would possibly significantly improve PARP1 inhibitors’ anti-tumor effectiveness.

“We’re now learning a number of potential CAF-blocking therapeutics in our labs,” Dr. Moscat mentioned.

Astronomers find ‘gold standard’ star in Milky Way —

In our solar’s neighborhood of the Milky Manner Galaxy is a comparatively shiny star, and in it, astronomers have been capable of determine the widest vary of parts in a star past our photo voltaic system but.

The examine, led by College of Michigan astronomer Ian Roederer, has recognized 65 parts within the star, HD 222925. Forty-two of the weather recognized are heavy parts which are listed alongside the underside of the periodic desk of parts.

Figuring out these parts in a single star will assist astronomers perceive what’s referred to as the “speedy neutron seize course of,” or one of many main methods by which heavy parts within the universe have been created. Their outcomes are posted on arXiv and have been accepted for publication within the Astrophysical Journal Complement Sequence.

“To the perfect of my information, that is a report for any object past our photo voltaic system. And what makes this star so distinctive is that it has a really excessive relative proportion of the weather listed alongside the underside two-thirds of the periodic desk. We even detected gold,” Roederer mentioned. “These parts have been made by the speedy neutron seize course of. That is actually the factor we’re attempting to check: the physics in understanding how, the place and when these parts have been made.”

The method, additionally referred to as the “r-process,” begins with the presence of lighter parts similar to iron. Then, quickly — on the order of a second — neutrons are added to the nuclei of the lighter parts. This creates heavier parts similar to selenium, silver, tellurium, platinum, gold and thorium, the type present in HD 222925, and all of that are not often detected in stars, in keeping with the astronomers.

“You want a lot of neutrons which are free and a really excessive power set of circumstances to liberate them and add them to the nuclei of atoms,” Roederer mentioned. “There aren’t very many environments wherein that may occur — two, possibly.”

One in all these environments has been confirmed: the merging of neutron stars. Neutron stars are the collapsed cores of supergiant stars, and are the smallest and densest recognized celestial objects. The collision of neutron star pairs causes gravitational waves and in 2017, astronomers first detected gravitational waves from merging neutron stars. One other manner the r-process may happen is after the explosive loss of life of huge stars.

“That is an vital step ahead: recognizing the place the r-process can happen. However it’s a a lot greater step to say, ‘What did that occasion truly do? What was produced there?” Roederer mentioned. “That is the place our examine is available in.”

The weather Roederer and his group recognized in HD 222925 have been produced in both a large supernovae or a merger of neutron stars very early within the universe. The fabric was ejected and thrown again into area, the place it later reformed into the star Roederer is finding out at this time.

This star can then be used as a proxy for what a kind of occasions would have produced. Any mannequin developed sooner or later that demonstrates how the r-process or nature produces parts on the underside two-thirds of the periodic desk will need to have the identical signature as HD 222925, Roederer says.

Crucially, the astronomers used an instrument on the Hubble Area Telescope that may accumulate ultraviolet spectra. This instrument was key in permitting the astronomers to gather gentle within the ultraviolet a part of the sunshine spectrum — gentle that’s faint, coming from a cool star similar to HD 222925.

The astronomers additionally used one of many Magellan telescopes — a consortium of which U-M is a associate — at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile to gather gentle from HD 222925 within the optical a part of the sunshine spectrum.

These spectra encode the “chemical fingerprint” of parts inside stars, and studying these spectra permits the astronomers not solely to determine the weather contained within the star, but additionally how a lot of a component the star comprises.

Anna Frebel is a co-author of the examine and professor of physics on the Massachusetts Institute of Know-how. She helped with the general interpretation of the HD 222925’s component abundance sample and the way it informs our understanding of the origin of the weather within the cosmos.

“We now know the detailed element-by-element output of some r-process occasion that occurred early within the universe,” Frebel mentioned. “Any mannequin that tries to grasp what is going on on with the r-process has to have the ability to reproduce that.”

Lots of the examine co-authors are a part of a gaggle referred to as the R-Course of Alliance, a gaggle of astrophysicists devoted to fixing the massive questions of the r-process. This venture marks one of many group’s key targets: figuring out which parts, and in what quantities, have been produced within the r-process in an unprecedented stage of element.

The alterations are associated with poor outcomes and disease progression —

Alterations in metabolic processes are a trademark of most cancers and might result in a tumor surroundings that’s acidic. Because of this, most cancers cells should adapt to outlive on this inhospitable surroundings. In a brand new examine revealed within the journal Cell Studies, Moffitt Most cancers Heart researchers present that most cancers cells in an acidic surroundings bear lipid synthesis and accumulation. The group recognized the important thing signaling molecules chargeable for these modifications and found that these alterations are related to poor outcomes and illness development amongst breast most cancers sufferers.

Most cancers cells bear quite a few modifications that promote cell survival and continued progress. One of many hallmark modifications of most cancers cells is the elevated breakdown of the sugar glucose, which when mixed with poor blood circulate, results in the event of a extremely acidic surrounding tumor surroundings. To outlive on this surroundings, most cancers cells bear diversifications, comparable to activation of the self-degradation and recycling course of referred to as autophagy, and the buildup of lipid fats droplets. Lipid droplets play an essential function within the regulation of power, metabolism and sign transduction; nonetheless, scientists are uncertain how lipid droplets accumulate in tumor cells or what their impression is on most cancers survival and development.

Moffitt researchers carried out a sequence of laboratory experiments with cell strains and mouse fashions to enhance their understanding of lipid droplets in most cancers. They found that breast most cancers cell strains grown in acidic situations accumulate intracellular lipid droplets that categorical the lipid droplets biomarker protein PLIN2. Lipid droplets shaped when a protein within the mobile membrane referred to as OGR1 sensed the presence of the acidic surroundings. OGR1 subsequently activated downstream sign transduction by the proteins phospholipase C and PI3K/AKT, which led to the formation of lipid droplets from the merchandise of amino acids that had undergone a metabolic breakdown into smaller parts.

Subsequent, the group needed to evaluate the organic results of lipid droplets and OGR1 on most cancers. Curiously, the acid sensing receptor OGR1 is extremely expressed in breast tumors and strongly related to illness development. They demonstrated that by concentrating on OGR1, they might scale back ranges of lipid droplets, inhibit stress responses and cell progress in acidic situations, and reduce tumor progress in mice. Moreover, the researchers found that prime expression of the lipid droplets biomarker PLIN2 was related to shorter survival and illness development in breast most cancers sufferers.

These mixed observations recommend that lipid droplets formation mediated by OGR1 is a vital contributor to tumor improvement and could also be a possible goal for anti-cancer medicine.

“Latest research have established reprogramming of lipid metabolism as an rising hallmark of many cancers, offering alternatives for therapeutic concentrating on. Many lipid inhibitors are being investigated as anticancer medicine in medical trials. Our research present a powerful basis for future investigations that can result in a extra detailed characterization of the function of OGR1 in ER stress response, autophagy and lipogenesis in animal fashions and human breast tumors,” defined Smitha Pillai, Ph.D., lead examine writer and a analysis scientist within the Most cancers Physiology Division at Moffitt.

This examine was supported by the Nationwide Institutes of Well being (R010-17536-99-02, R01-DK105346, P41-GM122698, 5U2C-DK119889, P30-CA076292), the Florida Division of Well being Bankhead-Coley Most cancers Analysis Program, the Florida Breast Most cancers Basis, the McKnight Mind Institute on the Nationwide Excessive Magnetic Discipline Laboratory’s Superior Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Facility (Nationwide Science Basis Cooperative Settlement DMR-1644779) and the European Analysis Council Consolidator Grant “Survive” (723997).

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Medication that lowers risk of overdose underused —

Lower than half of Individuals who acquired therapy for opioid use dysfunction over a five-year interval had been provided a probably lifesaving medicine, researchers at Washington College College of Medication in St. Louis and Saint Louis College have discovered. And therapy with the medicine was much more uncommon for these with what’s often called polysubstance use dysfunction — when opioid customers additionally misuse different substances, comparable to alcohol, methamphetamine, benzodiazepines or cocaine.

The findings construct on the information that medicines to deal with those that use opioids are typically underutilized.

“That is equal to giving these with superior most cancers a much less aggressive therapy,” mentioned senior investigator Laura J. Bierut, MD, the Alumni Endowed Professor of Psychiatry at Washington College. “It appears apparent to many people that we must be giving probably the most aggressive and efficient remedies to those that are most critically unwell.”

The doubtless lifesaving drug, buprenorphine, has been proven to scale back overdose danger — but an evaluation of medical insurance knowledge involving about 180,000 individuals handled for opioid use dysfunction confirmed that just about 53% of the sufferers with the dysfunction alone weren’t prescribed the medicine. Amongst these with polysubstance use dysfunction, the quantity prescribed buprenorphine dropped to about 30%.

The research is revealed Could 10 within the journal JAMA Community Open.

“It is regarding that almost all of individuals misusing a number of substances do not seem like getting the lifesaving medicine they actually need,” mentioned first creator Kevin Xu, MD, a resident doctor within the Division of Psychiatry at Washington College. “Even amongst those that used opioids solely, buprenorphine was prescribed solely about half the time. Whereas the information we analyzed predates COVID-19, the pandemic noticed an escalation in overdoses, but we’re nonetheless not seeing many eligible sufferers get buprenorphine prescriptions.”

Xu and his colleagues — together with Bierut and Richard A. Grucza, PhD, a professor within the Division of Household and Neighborhood Medication at Saint Louis College — analyzed knowledge compiled from 2011-2016 by insurance coverage firms for the U.S. IBM MarketScan databases. The databases embrace detailed details about sufferers handled for opioid use dysfunction, in addition to these handled for utilizing opioids along with different medication.

“The info we analyzed are a couple of years previous,” Bierut mentioned. “However we expect this info will be extrapolated to what’s taking place now as a result of much more individuals utilizing opioids — or utilizing opioids in addition to different substances — are displaying up in emergency departments right this moment. The issue has solely gotten worse through the COVID-19 pandemic.”

In a current 12-month interval from early 2021 by way of early 2022, nearly 107,000 Individuals died of drug overdoses. Compared, in 2017, after years of will increase in overdose deaths, the U.S. Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention reported 70,237 drug overdose deaths in the US.

Buprenorphine prescriptions haven’t saved up with the necessity. One purpose, Xu mentioned, is as a result of buprenorphine itself is an opioid, leading to hesitation to prescribe it to individuals with opioid use dysfunction. In contrast to methadone, one other opioid used to deal with heroin dependancy, buprenorphine will be taken at dwelling and doesn’t require day by day journeys to a clinic. However that lack of supervision, in addition to a scarcity of knowledge in regards to the drug’s effectiveness in those that misuse a number of substances, has meant some docs are reluctant to prescribe it. Xu mentioned the considerations seem like unfounded.

“Buprenorphine seems to a protected opioid,” he mentioned. “It is particularly designed to be completely different from different opioid medication in that it will not trigger a consumer to cease respiratory, which just about each different kind of opioid will do. Which means it may be taken safely at dwelling, which could be very useful, even important, to restoration.”

The research additionally in contrast buprenorphine’s capacity to assist stop future overdoses to that of the drug naltrexone. Buprenorphine is what’s often called a partial opioid agonist, which means it prompts the identical receptor that heroin and fentanyl activate. Naltrexone, alternatively, blocks that receptor on mind cells.

The info on this research indicated that whereas each medication lowered the chance of future overdoses, buprenorphine diminished it greater than naltrexone.

“For a very long time, individuals thought that blocking the receptor can be simply nearly as good as utilizing a drug, like buprenorphine, to activate the opioid receptor,” Xu mentioned. “However current knowledge counsel buprenorphine is considerably simpler. Now the problem will likely be convincing extra docs to prescribe this protected and efficient drug for the sufferers who want it.”

This work is supported by the Nationwide Institute of Psychological Well being, the Nationwide Institute on Drug Abuse, the Nationwide Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the Nationwide Heart for Advancing Translational Sciences and the Company for Healthcare Analysis and Sciences of the Nationwide Institutes of Well being (NIH). Grant numbers R25 MH112473-01, R21 DA044744, U10 AA008401, R01 DA036583, 12 DA041449, UL1 TR002345, R24 HS19455.

Diets high in fiber associated with less antibiotic resistance in gut bacteria —

Wholesome adults who eat a various food plan with not less than 8-10 grams of soluble fiber a day have fewer antibiotic-resistant microbes of their guts, in line with a research revealed by Agricultural Analysis Service scientists and their colleagues in mBio.

Microbes which have resistance to varied generally used antibiotics reminiscent of tetracycline and aminoglycoside are a major supply of threat for individuals worldwide, with the extensively held expectation that the issue of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) — the time period that refers to micro organism, viruses, and fungi which are immune to antibiotics — is more likely to worsen all through the approaching a long time.

Antimicrobial resistance in individuals is basically based mostly of their intestine microbiome, the place the microbes are recognized to hold genetically encoded methods to outlive contact with antibiotics.

“And the outcomes lead on to the concept modifying the food plan has the potential to be a brand new weapon within the struggle in opposition to antimicrobial resistance. And we’re not speaking about consuming some unique food plan both, however a various food plan, enough in fiber, that some People already eat,” defined analysis molecular biologist Danielle Lemay with the ARS Western Human Diet Analysis Heart in Davis, California, and chief of the research.

On this research, the researchers have been in search of particular associations of the degrees of antibiotic resistance genes within the microbes of the human intestine with each fiber and animal protein in grownup diets.

The researchers discovered commonly consuming a food plan with increased ranges of fiber and decrease ranges of protein, particularly from beef and pork, was considerably correlated with decrease ranges of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG) amongst their intestine microbes. These with the bottom ranges of ARG of their intestine microbiomes additionally had a larger abundance of strict anaerobic microbes, that are micro organism that don’t thrive when oxygen is current and are an indicator of a wholesome intestine with low irritation. Bacterial species within the household Clostridiaceae have been essentially the most quite a few anaerobes discovered.

However the quantity of animal protein within the food plan was not a prime predictor of excessive ranges of ARG. The strongest proof was for the affiliation of upper quantities of soluble fiber within the food plan with decrease ranges of ARGs.

“Surprisingly, an important predictor of low ranges of ARG, much more than fiber, was the range of the food plan. This implies that we might wish to eat from numerous sources of meals that are typically increased in soluble fiber for optimum profit,” Lemay added.

Soluble fiber, as its title suggests, dissolves in water and is the primary kind of fiber present in grains like barley and oats; legumes like beans, lentils and peas, seeds (like chia seeds) and nuts; and a few fruit and veggies like carrots, berries, artichokes, broccoli and winter squash.

On the opposite finish of the information, these individuals who had the best ranges of ARG of their intestine microbiomes have been discovered to have considerably much less numerous intestine microbiomes in comparison with teams with low and medium ranges of ARG.

“Our diets present meals for intestine microbes. This all means that what we eat could be an answer to cut back antimicrobial resistance by modifying the intestine microbiome,” Lemay stated.

In whole, 290 wholesome adults participated within the research.

“However that is nonetheless only a starting as a result of what we did was an observational research quite than a research by which we supplied a specific food plan for topics to eat, which might enable extra head-to-head comparisons,” Lemay stated. “Ultimately, dietary interventions could also be helpful in lessening the burden of antimicrobial resistance and would possibly in the end encourage dietary tips that can think about how diet might scale back the danger of antibiotic-resistant infections.”

Dynamics of blood flow reveal insights about the formation, prevention, treatment of cardiac diseases —

Medical interventions, corresponding to enhancing food plan, reducing blood lipids, or controlling blood stress and blood sugar, can solely accomplish that a lot in the case of treating atherosclerotic illness. Is it potential to make earlier predictions for threat elements for plaque formation throughout the carotid arteries by way of traits of vascular construction and the dynamics of blood movement earlier than the illness progresses?

In Physics of Fluids, from AIP Publishing, researchers in China current clinicians with details about the chance elements for atherosclerotic plaque formation from a mechanical perspective. The scientists are exploring whether or not it’s potential to display screen and intervene early for folks in danger for atherosclerotic illness from the attitude of hemodynamics, utilizing colour Doppler ultrasound, coronary computed tomography angiography, and different screenings.

“Carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting are the primary strategies for therapy of carotid artery stenosis,” mentioned Zhiyong Tune, from the College of Science and Know-how Beijing. “Modifications of postoperative vascular construction and fluid mechanics are necessary for restenosis, so figuring out the right way to decrease threat elements of postoperative movement is necessary for enhancing the therapeutic impact.”

A multipoint, noncontact laser movement measurement methodology known as microparticle picture velocimetry (Micro-PIV) was utilized by the researchers, one thing they mentioned has been repeatedly improved throughout the previous few a long time and exceeds the constraints of single-point measurement applied sciences.

“It might file velocity distribution info on numerous spatial factors throughout the similar transient state to offer wealthy spatial construction of movement discipline and movement traits,” mentioned Tune.

The researchers found a major hole between their examine and the medical methodology when it comes to wall shear energy calculation, which might result in confusion concerning the physiological mechanism.

“Based mostly on the plateau-like distribution of the rate discipline on the central carotid stenosis location proven by Micro-PIV and simulations, the present medical estimation methodology of wall shear stress on the stenosis location might lead to a distinction of as much as 60%,” Tune mentioned.

The group’s hemodynamic examine of carotid atherosclerotic plaque has necessary medical significance for understanding the formation and growth mechanism of atherosclerotic illness, enhancing surgical therapy know-how, and researching and creating future medical units.

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