How do blind cavefish survive their low-oxygen environment? Remarkable fish have a hidden evolutionary adaptation — big red blood cells — ScienceDaily


Cavefish have apparent diversifications corresponding to lacking eyes and pale colours that reveal how they developed over millennia in a darkish, subterranean world.

Now researchers on the College of Cincinnati say these unimaginable fish have an equally outstanding physiology that helps them deal with a low-oxygen setting that might kill different species.

Biologists in UC’s School of Arts and Sciences discovered that Mexican cavefish produce extra hemoglobin by way of purple blood cells which might be a lot bigger in comparison with these of surface-dwelling fish. Hemoglobin helps the physique transport oxygen and carbon dioxide between a fish’s cells and organs and its gills.

The research was revealed within the Nature journal Scientific Stories. It demonstrates how rather more there’s to study animals which have intrigued biologists for 200 years.

“I have been fascinated by these fish for a very long time,” UC affiliate professor Joshua Gross mentioned.

Cavefish developed in caverns all over the world. The species UC biologists examined, Astyanax mexicanus, diverged as just lately as 20,000 years in the past from floor fish nonetheless present in close by streams in Sierra de El Abra, Mexico.

Cavefish are pale pink and almost translucent in comparison with their silvery counterparts on the floor. Whereas cavefish have the faintest define of vestigial eye sockets, the floor tetras have huge spherical eyes that give them a perpetually stunned expression.

Regardless of their many apparent bodily variations, the 2 fish are thought of by many to be members of the identical species, Gross mentioned.

“In contrast to Charles Darwin’s finches within the Galapagos which might be separated on the species stage, each the cavefish and floor fish are thought of members of the identical species and might interbreed,” he mentioned.

That makes them an excellent mannequin system for biologists to review evolutionary and genetic diversifications, Gross mentioned.

Gross and his college students have discovered so much about these puzzling fish through the years. They discovered that the fish’s cranium is asymmetrical, which might be an adaptation for navigating in a world with no visible cues. And so they recognized the gene liable for the fish’s ghostly pallid colour. It is the identical gene liable for purple hair colour in individuals.

Scientists elsewhere have reported that cavefish sleep lower than floor fish.

For the most recent research, Gross and UC biology college students Jessica Friedman and Tyler Boggs, the research’s lead writer, examined hemoglobin in cavefish blood to see if it’d clarify how they survive the low-oxygen setting of deep underground caves. The UC research examined cavefish from three populations in Mexican caves referred to as Chica, Tinaja and Pachón.

Whereas fast-moving floor streams are saturated with oxygen, cavefish stay in deep caverns the place standing water lies undisturbed for lengthy durations. Research have discovered that a few of these standing swimming pools have far much less dissolved oxygen than floor waters.

“They transfer round on a regular basis, however they’ve little entry to diet,” Boggs mentioned. “It is a paradox. They’re expending all this power. The place does it come from?”

Blood samples revealed that cavefish have extra hemoglobin than floor fish. UC researchers assumed that cavefish should have the next hematocrit — a medical measure of the relative contribution of purple blood cells in entire blood.

These researchers anticipated to seek out extra purple blood cells in cavefish, “However they have been nearly the identical,” Gross mentioned. “We could not determine what was occurring.”

UC biologists examined the purple blood cells of each fish and located that these of cavefish are a lot bigger by comparability.

“That dimension distinction largely explains the variations in hematocrit,” Gross mentioned. “We all know little or no in regards to the mechanism of cell dimension in evolution, so this discovering is one thing we might capitalize on to realize perception into how animals evolve elevated hemoglobin capability.”

Gross mentioned the elevated hemoglobin would possibly enable cavefish to forage longer within the low-oxygen setting. Cavefish usually should work tougher to seek out restricted meals accessible within the caves.

Boggs mentioned scientists are very desirous about how fish draw oxygen from the water. Due to local weather change and human improvement, marine programs are seeing extra ecological disasters corresponding to purple tides, algae blooms that create low-oxygen environments that usually result in huge fish kills.

“There may be lots of ecological relevance right here,” he mentioned. “It is occurring in freshwater environments, saltwater environments. Researchers try to name consideration to this terrible situation.”

Tegneserier er et udtryk

Tegneserier er et udtryk, der bruges i USA til at henvise til tegneserier. Det kommer fra et ord, der betyder “komisk” på engelsk, fordi de første tegneserier udgivet i USA var sjove. Men i den fransktalende verden er betydningen begrænset til den særlige definition af amerikanske tegneserier.
Sjove billeder er korte sjove tråde af et par firkanter, der strækker sig over tråden i løbet af ugen (daglig tråd), helside i weekenden (søndags tråd) og fortæller ofte en kort sjov historie, eller nogle gange for sjov, i form af Soap Opera . Det dukkede op i slutningen af ​​det nittende århundrede, tegneserier blev offentliggjort i aviser.

Tegneseriebøger er aviser med nogle få sider, der beskriver en udviklet historie, udgivet i rater i den almindelige æra, der går tilbage til 1930’erne. Hvis alle kategorierne er repræsenteret, inkluderer de mest populære superhelte, udgivet af DC Comics og Marvel Comics, udgivet af DC Comics og Marvel Comics. de er en del af humoristiske historier. Med fødslen af ​​underjordiske tegneserier i 1960’erne, efterfulgt af andre tegneserier, giver dette format også amerikanske komikere mulighed for at udtrykke deres synspunkter i al deres mangfoldighed.

Da humoristiske historier kæmpede for at opnå anerkendelse som selve kunsten i USA, blev udtrykket “grafisk roman”, der dukkede op i 1970’erne, populær i 1990’erne. bøger og udgivet af andre forlag, der anvendes umiddelbart og i dag primært beskriver formatet, disken, originale skabelse eller kompilering af de første udgivne tavler i tegneserier. En grafisk roman bliver nogle gange modsagt som en falsk. En tegneseriesamling kaldes et tryk eller en antologi. Andre former for udgivelse, såsom fanzines, småt eller webcomics, er også hentet fra USA.

S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9

Create a backup of your Mac on 2022

Whether Time Machine automatically backs up your Mac, creating a full duplicate (a clone or mirror) of its data prior to installing macOS updates or upgrades is a smart practice. Carbon Copy Cloner 6 (£29.90, bombich.com) may create a one-time clone or scheduled backups in addition to, or instead of, Time Machine, and prior versions are compatible with Mojave and earlier.

Also Read: Is this the Bitcoin of the Future?

Catalina and Big Sur alter the way a clone is restored. Rather of cloning back to your internal storage from the copy, it is preferable to install macOS and then migrate from the copy, which is the only method for M1 Macs. This eliminates the need to clone the System volume, which saves space; however, CCC may still do so if desired.

CCC offers a plethora of choices. We demonstrate how to get the most out of them by omitting things that should be copied individually and creating snapshots for rapid file recovery. Whichever method you choose, verify that your clone works by restoring test items.

HOW TO CORRECTLY clone YOUR MAC

1 Adjust the loudness of the source

Select Tasks in the sidebar of Carbon Copy Cloner and give the new, empty backup task a name. To make your Mac’s starting drive, by default called Macintosh HD, the source for your clone, click on the Source icon and choose it.

2 Determine the final destination

Take note of the utilized space on your source volume and ensure that the destination volume has enough free space to store it. Then, click the Destination button and choose a volume with sufficient free space to accommodate the clone.

3 Decide whether or not to repeat

If you want this cloning to be repeated automatically, click on Automation and specify the scheduling basis. Generally, a daily clone is preferable for backups and when the disk is remounted on occasionally connected MacBooks.

4 Specify schedule information

If you leave your Mac running overnight, it’s a good idea to schedule the run time for when it’s not in use. If the machine is going to sleep, you may have the backup job wake it up or postpone it until later. Additionally, you may exclude weekends.

5 Define which things are excluded

At the bottom of the main window, click Task Plan to exclude things from the clone. Consider maintaining distinct copies of large files, such as Virtual Machines, that are continuously changing while in operation.

6 Configure advanced options

CCC has many advanced options, such as executing scripts before and after copying. If you want it to backup while you’re using your Mac, you can now adjust the priority of its copying jobs from this window.

7 Conduct a dry run

Before initiating the initial clone, verify that copying will yield the desired results. When you click the Preview button, CCC will do a dry run without transferring any real files and will predict the precise size. Correct any mistakes immediately.

8 Configure source snapshots

Consider taking pictures on a regular basis. In the sidebar, choose Volumes and then pick the starting data disk called Macintosh HD – Data or simply Data. Turn on CCC for each duplicate of that disk to create a snapshot.

9 Retention of snapshots

The default snapshot retention strategy in CCC should be suitable for the majority of users, since older snapshots may use significant disk space. If you want, click the Customize option to create your own policy, but keep an eye on the amount of space utilized.

ten Duplicate that volume

Once everything is configured, -click the task in the sidebar and use the Run Now command to create the first clone. CCC then displays the clone’s progress graphically and provides an exact time estimate for completion.

11 Examine task activities

When the cloning process is complete, click Task History, pick the completed task, and then click the Task Trends button to see a summary of activities. To initiate a recurring task, click the Start button on the main window.

12 clone of the Optional System

If you want CCC to clone your System disk as well, click on its icon and choose the Legacy Bootable Backup Assistant option before proceeding to step 7.

THIS WILL TAKE TIME

TEN SECONDS

YOU WILL EXPERIENCE

To duplicate files in order to restore them

YOU WILL REQUIRE

macOS 10.15 or later, an external hard drive with enough free space, and Carbon Copy Cloner 6

 

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6 applications that help you work smarter in 2022

If you want to take your job to the next level, a smartphone may be a valuable tool. Whether you’re self-employed or run a business, the App Store has a variety of tools for keeping track of essential daily activities, all of which may help you reduce your burden.

Here are six of the finest, ranging from applications that can help you enhance the quality of your company communications and social media reach to tools that can help you monitor the time you spend on billable tasks so you can be paid for all your hard work. So start downloading, and then get to work — the rest of the world is waiting!

Grammarly KEYBOARD

Free for iPhone and iPad

Grammarly is an excellent tool for eliminating errors in your writing. It has a similar appearance to the standard iOS keyboard, but it includes advanced grammar, spelling, and punctuation coaching. Grammarly can not only detect context-specific errors as you write, but it can also flag ambiguous phrases that may leave your coworkers – or worse, your employer – perplexed as to what you’re talking about.

SCANNER SCANBOT

Unrestricted (Pro subscription available) Designed for iPhone and iPad

Scanbot is the best scanner app we’ve tried, not just because of the quality of its PDF and JPG scans (which easily match desktop scanners), but also because of its sophisticated document auto detection and feature set. Scanbot allows you to add colour, grayscale, or black-and-white filters to scans before sharing them through the cloud, email, or print — you can even fax your documents.

HOURS TIME TRACKING

IAPs (In-App Purchases) are available for free on the iPhone.

This software is for you if you’re self-employed and charge customers based on billable hours. Its simple interface allows you to set up and monitor numerous timers, and it provides a clear visual summary of where you spent your time at the end of the day. You may add comments to your time entries and even send customers professional-looking bills straight from the app.

SLACK

Unrestricted (Pro subscription available) Designed for iPhone and iPad

Slack has grown in popularity as a team collaboration and communication tool, and for good cause. The app’s UI makes it simple to arrange discussions by subject or project, preview, share, and edit documents, chat or contact team members, connect with cloud services, and more. It’s aimed at both big and small companies.

ONEDRIVE BY MICROSOFT

(Pro subscriptions are available) Designed for iPhone and iPad

OneDrive is a cloud storage service that integrates well with Office 365, but even if you don’t have an Office 365 subscription, you may utilise its mobile sync and file sharing capabilities. The app just received some well-deserved improvements, including preview support for over 130 file types, iOS 11 drag-and-drop functionality, and more.

BUFFER: MANAGER OF SOCIAL MEDIA

IAPs (In-App Purchases) are available for free on the iPhone and iPad.

Buffer provides a suite of excellent tools for you to publish and monitor the success of your content across numerous accounts, including Instagram and Twitter, since every smart company has a social media presence. The app’s scheduling capabilities allow you to adjust the time of individual postings, while statistics show you how well your updates are doing. ■

Is this the Bitcoin of the Future?

Ripple, like Bitcoin, makes it easier to move money around the globe. Ripple, on the other hand, is an internet protocol that allows for financial transactions in any currency. For example, a user may send dollars and get euros through Ripple.

Ripple Labs, headquartered in San Francisco, wants to make Ripple the standard protocol used by banks across the world to move money around the world as cheaply and rapidly as sending an e-mail.

We spoke with Gary Kremen, the founder of Match.com and the recently launched CrossCoin Ventures, an accelerator that mentors Ripple-based startups and helps them tackle finance-specific challenges like compliance and customer-service requirements, to learn more about Ripple and how it might affect small-business transactions.

What are Ripple’s benefits?

Ripple, like Bitcoin, is a distributed public database and global ledger. Without going through a central clearinghouse, computers on the Ripple network may automatically agree on updates to the ledger in seconds via a technique known as consensus. Its major engineering achievement was the settlement speed. As a result, Ripple transactions usually settle in three to five seconds, as opposed to up to 40 minutes for Bitcoin payments.

What is Ripple’s role in assisting small businesses?

Small companies will be able to accept money from consumers from all around the world in seconds. Credit card purchases may now take up to three days to reach a small business’s bank account. Getting that money faster helps in the management of a company’s daily cash flow.

Because Ripple makes money transfers virtually free, credit card firms will most likely reduce transaction fees to compete, lowering small businesses’ expenses. Small businesses are disproportionately impacted by credit card fees today. Small companies can’t negotiate better prices because they’re too big.

The advantages of Ripple are enormous if you’re a small company that conducts a lot of business abroad. Transferring money abroad may take up to five days, and the average transfer cost is 7%. Ripple transfers money in three to five seconds and charges little to no fees.

Do you think Ripple will catch on? If yes, when will it happen?

Cryptocurrencies take longer to develop because they are rewriting the financial services infrastructure. However, I believe the odds are favorable. Ripple Labs is focused on ensuring compliance and gaining the support of regulators and institutions. In the next 24 months, I wouldn’t be shocked to see Ripple powering daily transactions.

How do the Ripple founders make money?

Ripple is an open-source protocol that is meant to be used by the general public; Ripple Labs does not own or control the protocol. It did, however, develop its own crypto-currency, dubbed XRP, to ease transactions. Wall Street may exchange XRP for other currencies and offer cross-currency liquidity. This assists the market in determining Ripple transaction exchange rates.

At the time of Ripple’s creation, one hundred billion XRPs were produced, and no more can be created, similar to how Bitcoin was formed. However, there is one major distinction: Ripple’s XRP cannot be mined like Bitcoin. One of Ripple’s creators was a member of the Bitcoin community who objected to the energy-intensive [computer] mining procedure required to generate each Bitcoin, so he built Ripple without it. To address your question, Ripple Labs owns approximately 25% of the money and uses it to finance their operations.

The figure is 67%.

According to the Internet Society’s “Global Internet Report 2014,” the United States is ranked 30th among nations having the fastest average internet speed.

The United States, which is the quickest nation in the Western Hemisphere, is 67 percent slower than Hong Kong, which is rated first. The good news is that In terms of mobile broadband connectivity, the United States is ranked tenth in the world.

 

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Create a backup of your Mac