Politikal nga ekonomiya

Ang ekonomiya sa politika mao ang pagtuon sa produksiyon ug pamatigayon ug ang ilang relasyon sa balaod, kostumbre ug gobyerno; ug sa pag-apod-apod sa nasudnong kita ug bahandi. Isip usa ka disiplina, ang politikanhong ekonomiya naggikan sa moral nga pilosopiya, sa ika-18 nga siglo, aron tukion ang pagdumala sa bahandi sa mga estado, uban ang “politikal” nga nagpasabot sa Griyego nga pulong polity ug “ekonomiya” nga nagpasabot sa Griyego nga pulong οἰκονομία (pagdumala sa panimalay). Ang labing una nga mga buhat sa politikanhong ekonomiya sagad nga gipasangil sa mga British nga iskolar nga sila Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, ug David Ricardo, bisan kung giunhan sila sa buhat sa mga physiocrats sa Pransya, sama nila François Quesnay (1694–1774) ug Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot (1727–1781). Adunay usab usa ka tradisyon nga halos ingon ka taas, sa pagsaway sa politikanhong ekonomiya.

Sa ulahing bahin sa ika-19 nga siglo, ang termino nga “ekonomiya” anam-anam nga nagsugod sa pag-ilis sa termino nga “politikal nga ekonomiya” uban sa pagsaka sa matematikal nga pagmodelo dungan sa pagmantala sa usa ka impluwensyal nga libro ni Alfred Marshall niadtong 1890. Sa sayo pa, si William Stanley Jevons, usa ka tigpasiugda sa mathematical nga mga pamaagi nga gigamit sa hilisgutan, nagpasiugda sa ekonomiya alang sa mubo ug uban sa paglaum sa termino nga mahimong “ang giila nga ngalan sa usa ka siyensiya”. Ang mga sukatan sa pagsukod sa citation gikan sa Google Ngram Viewer nagpakita nga ang paggamit sa termino nga “ekonomiya” nagsugod sa pagtabon sa “ekonomiya sa politika” sa halos 1910, nahimong gipili nga termino alang sa disiplina sa 1920. Karon, ang termino nga “ekonomiya” kasagarang nagtumong sa pig-ot nga pagtuon sa ekonomiya wala diha sa ubang politikal ug sosyal nga mga konsiderasyon samtang ang termino nga “politikal nga ekonomiya” nagrepresentar sa usa ka lahi ug kompetisyon nga pamaagi.

Sa komon nga pulong, ang “ekonomiya sa politika” mahimong magtumong lamang sa tambag nga gihatag sa mga ekonomista ngadto sa gobyerno o publiko bahin sa kinatibuk-ang palisiya sa ekonomiya o sa mga espesipikong sugyot sa ekonomiya nga gihimo sa mga siyentipiko sa politika.[6] Ang usa ka paspas nga nagtubo nga mainstream nga literatura gikan sa 1970s milapad lapas pa sa modelo sa palisiya sa ekonomiya diin ang mga tigplano nagpadako sa gamit sa usa ka representante nga indibidwal padulong sa pagsusi kung giunsa ang epekto sa mga pwersa sa politika sa pagpili sa mga palisiya sa ekonomiya, labi na sa mga panagbangi sa pag-apod-apod ug mga institusyon sa politika.

Anaa kini isip usa ka stand-alone nga lugar sa pagtuon o gitanyag ubos sa ekonomiya o siyensya sa politika sa pipila nga mga institusyon, lakip ang Harvard University, Princeton University, London School of Economics, Stanford University, ang Unibersidad sa Chicago, ug uban pa.

Create a backup of your Mac on 2022

Whether Time Machine automatically backs up your Mac, creating a full duplicate (a clone or mirror) of its data prior to installing macOS updates or upgrades is a smart practice. Carbon Copy Cloner 6 (£29.90, bombich.com) may create a one-time clone or scheduled backups in addition to, or instead of, Time Machine, and prior versions are compatible with Mojave and earlier.

Also Read: Is this the Bitcoin of the Future?

Catalina and Big Sur alter the way a clone is restored. Rather of cloning back to your internal storage from the copy, it is preferable to install macOS and then migrate from the copy, which is the only method for M1 Macs. This eliminates the need to clone the System volume, which saves space; however, CCC may still do so if desired.

CCC offers a plethora of choices. We demonstrate how to get the most out of them by omitting things that should be copied individually and creating snapshots for rapid file recovery. Whichever method you choose, verify that your clone works by restoring test items.


1 Adjust the loudness of the source

Select Tasks in the sidebar of Carbon Copy Cloner and give the new, empty backup task a name. To make your Mac’s starting drive, by default called Macintosh HD, the source for your clone, click on the Source icon and choose it.

2 Determine the final destination

Take note of the utilized space on your source volume and ensure that the destination volume has enough free space to store it. Then, click the Destination button and choose a volume with sufficient free space to accommodate the clone.

3 Decide whether or not to repeat

If you want this cloning to be repeated automatically, click on Automation and specify the scheduling basis. Generally, a daily clone is preferable for backups and when the disk is remounted on occasionally connected MacBooks.

4 Specify schedule information

If you leave your Mac running overnight, it’s a good idea to schedule the run time for when it’s not in use. If the machine is going to sleep, you may have the backup job wake it up or postpone it until later. Additionally, you may exclude weekends.

5 Define which things are excluded

At the bottom of the main window, click Task Plan to exclude things from the clone. Consider maintaining distinct copies of large files, such as Virtual Machines, that are continuously changing while in operation.

6 Configure advanced options

CCC has many advanced options, such as executing scripts before and after copying. If you want it to backup while you’re using your Mac, you can now adjust the priority of its copying jobs from this window.

7 Conduct a dry run

Before initiating the initial clone, verify that copying will yield the desired results. When you click the Preview button, CCC will do a dry run without transferring any real files and will predict the precise size. Correct any mistakes immediately.

8 Configure source snapshots

Consider taking pictures on a regular basis. In the sidebar, choose Volumes and then pick the starting data disk called Macintosh HD – Data or simply Data. Turn on CCC for each duplicate of that disk to create a snapshot.

9 Retention of snapshots

The default snapshot retention strategy in CCC should be suitable for the majority of users, since older snapshots may use significant disk space. If you want, click the Customize option to create your own policy, but keep an eye on the amount of space utilized.

ten Duplicate that volume

Once everything is configured, -click the task in the sidebar and use the Run Now command to create the first clone. CCC then displays the clone’s progress graphically and provides an exact time estimate for completion.

11 Examine task activities

When the cloning process is complete, click Task History, pick the completed task, and then click the Task Trends button to see a summary of activities. To initiate a recurring task, click the Start button on the main window.

12 clone of the Optional System

If you want CCC to clone your System disk as well, click on its icon and choose the Legacy Bootable Backup Assistant option before proceeding to step 7.




To duplicate files in order to restore them


macOS 10.15 or later, an external hard drive with enough free space, and Carbon Copy Cloner 6


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How to Remove Country Specific URL from Blogspot / Blogger Site | Remove .in .fr .ca

For web developers, Country Specific URLs may be an issue at times. When accessed from India. However, since certain applications are designed to operate on the .com domain name, they will not work on that country-specific URL. So I conducted some research to find a solution to this issue. And now, here’s the answer.

How to Remove a Blogspot / Blogger Country Specific URL

Remove the.in /.fr /.ca /.au /.pk from your blogger site and replace it with a.com domain name from anywhere in the world:

Go to your blogger account and log in.
Edit HTML in the Template
Look for the head> tag in the HTML code. It will most likely be at the top of the code.
Just below the head> tag, paste the following code.

  • Paste the following code just below the <head>
<script type=”text/javascript”>
var blog = document.location.hostname;
var slug = document.location.pathname;
var ctld = blog.substr(blog.lastIndexOf(“.”));
if (ctld != “.com”) {
var ncr = “http://” + blog.substr(0, blog.indexOf(“.”));
ncr += “.blogspot.com/ncr” + slug;

Save the template and take use of the.com domain name.

I’m hoping that you’ll be able to obtain a.com domain name instead of a country-specific URL by utilising this technique. If you find this article to be useful and interesting, please leave a comment.

How to Embed a PDF file in a Website using HTML Code

You’ve probably seen a lot of websites that display pdf files right on their pages rather than providing a link to download the file. It’s also possible to do it on your own blog or website. we will show you how to accomplish it using a straightforward approach.

How to Use HTML Code to Embed a PDF File in a Website

To embed a pdf file in your website, you’ll need to utilise extremely basic HTML code. It would be preferable if you created the PDF yourself and submitted it to the server. Simply grab the PDF file’s URL and then follow the instructions below to embed the PDF on your website.
1) Open the HTML code for the webpage where you wish to embed the PDF.
2) Go to the precise spot on your website where you want it to appear.
3) Add the following code to your page:
<embed src=”URL_of_the_PDF_file.pdf” width=”550″ height=”750″></embed>
4) In the src box, paste the URL of the PDF file. Width and height may be modified to fit your website’s display area.
A basic example of one of these PDF files is shown below. I hope you’ll utilise this easy code to embed PDF files to your website.

Boost Youtube Views : Tips to Get most in the Least Time

All YouTube users aim to acquire as many views as possible in the shortest amount of time. It isn’t an impossible job, but it isn’t a simple one either. To boost the number of views on YouTube, your video must have certain characteristics that are unique to it.

Boost the number of views on YouTube.

Your uploaded video should have the following characteristics to boost views on YouTube:

You should make your own video. It must not be a duplication of another video.
Make your video fascinating so that others will want to watch it and share it on social media. It is the most effective method for spreading your movie via a chain reaction.
Use appropriate keyword research methods to create a good title for your video.
A description may also be beneficial since it demonstrates the uniqueness of your film and persuades viewers to watch it.
You may add keywords to your video using Yoytube. You should use a variety of keyword combinations that correspond to your video’s topic.
Subscribe to other YouTube channels, and they may subscribe to yours as well, assisting you in the distribution of your films.

Apart from these considerations, remember that using unlawful methods to boost views will result in your video/channel being removed from YouTube. Some individuals attempt to get proxy views using free software bots. These may seem to be the simplest and most effective methods for increasing YouTube views, but they are ineffective in the long term. we attempted to respond to the question: “How can I boost my YouTube views for free?” Use legitimate methods to increase the number of views on your YouTube videos.

This page is seen by people looking for the following terms:

  • boost youtube views free
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How to Find Sitemap URL of Blogger and Blogspot Sites in 2022?

Sitemap for Blogger / Blogspot 2022

Blogger blogs, like all other websites, have a sitemap, however their sitemap URL is somewhat different from other sites.

Sitemaps are usually found at www.yoursitename.com/sitemap.xml.
However, such a sitemap is not possible with Blogger.
As a result, you have a feed as a sitemap.
For bloggers, there are two sitemap blogspot URLs to use:
While looking for the sitemap URL for this blog, I came upon these URLs.

Important Reminder: (update on 19-Mar-2018)

Using the aforementioned sitemaps, we discovered that Webmaster only indexes 26 URLs, which is inconvenient. So here’s something different. Please use the updated sitemap URLs instead of the old ones (which were provided years ago).
The complete sitemap index may be found on “sitemap.xml,” whereas “sitemap.xml?page=1” only has 150 pages. So, if your site has more than 150 articles, keep raising the page count. You may submit all of those sitemap URLs to Webmasters to improve your website’s crawling.

What is the purpose of a Sitemap?

A sitemap is required for search engine bots to crawl and index each and every page of our website in order for it to appear in search results. We may publish a sitemap to search engines so that they can crawl every post / page on your blog if we have one.
You may also use the Google Webmasters tool to submit similar URLs.
Google Webmasters: How to Submit a Blogger Sitemap
I’m assuming you’ve previously registered your blog with Google Webmasters.
Now go to the “Optimizations” tab and choose “Sitemaps.” Then choose “Add/Test Sitemap” from the drop-down menu.
It allows you to test your Sitemap URL and submit it to Google Webmasters.