How sugar promotes inflammation —

Individuals who eat sugar and different carbohydrates in extra over a protracted time frame have an elevated danger of growing an autoimmune illness. In affected sufferers, the immune system assaults the physique’s personal tissue and the results are, for instance, persistent inflammatory bowel illnesses reminiscent of Crohn’s illness and ulcerative colitis, sort 1 diabetes and persistent irritation of the thyroid gland.

New targets for remedy

The underlying molecular mechanisms that promote autoimmune illnesses are multilayered and complicated. Now, scientists on the Julius Maximilians College of Würzburg (JMU) have succeeded in deciphering new particulars of those processes. Their work help the notion that extreme consumption of glucose instantly promotes the pathogenic features of sure cells of the immune system and that, conversely, {that a} calorie-reduced weight loss program can have a useful impact on immune illnesses. Based mostly on these findings, in addition they recognized new targets for therapeutic interventions: A selected blockade of glucose-depended metabolic processes in these immune cells can suppress extreme immune reactions.

Dr. Martin Väth is liable for the research, which has now been revealed within the journal Cell Metabolism. He’s a junior analysis group chief on the Institute of Methods Immunology — a Max Planck analysis group beneath the umbrella of JMU that focusses on the interaction of the immune system with the organism. Collaborators from Amsterdam, Berlin, Freiburg and Leuven have been additionally concerned on this research.

Glucose transporter with a facet job

Martin Väth explains: “Immune cells want massive quantities of sugar within the type of glucose to carry out their duties. With the assistance of specialised transporters at their cell membrane, they will take up glucose from the atmosphere.” Collectively along with his staff, Väth has confirmed {that a} particular glucose transporter — scientifically named GLUT3 — fulfills further metabolic features in T cells moreover the producing vitality from sugar.

Of their research, the scientists targeted on a bunch of cells of the immune system that haven’t been recognized for very lengthy: T helper cells of sort 17, additionally known as Th17 lymphocytes, which play an vital function in regulating (auto-) inflammatory processes.

“These Th17 cells specific a lot of GLUT3 protein on their cell floor,” Väth explains. As soon as taken up, glucose is instantly transformed to citric acid within the mitochondria earlier than it’s metabolized into acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) within the cytoplasm. Acetyl-CoA is concerned in quite a few metabolic processes, together with the biosynthesis of lipids.

Affect on proinflammatory genes

Nevertheless, acetyl-CoA fulfills further features in inflammatory Th17 cells. Väth and his staff confirmed that this metabolic intermediate also can regulate the exercise of assorted gene segments. Thus, glucose consumption has a direct affect on the exercise of proinflammatory genes.

In response to the researchers, theses new findings pave the best way for the event of focused remedy of autoimmune illnesses. For instance, blocking GLUT3-dependent synthesis of acetyl-CoA by the dietary complement hydroxycitrate, which is used to deal with weight problems, can mitigate the pathogenic features of Th17 cells and scale back inflammatory-pathological processes. The so-called “metabolic reprogramming” of T cells opens new potentialities to deal with autoimmune illnesses with out curbing protecting immune cell features.

Story Supply:

Supplies supplied by College of Würzburg. Authentic written by Gunnar Bartsch. Be aware: Content material could also be edited for fashion and size.